Purpose: As defined by the National Center on Response to Intervention (RtI), "response to intervention integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems." Although RtI may have a different name in some states, the basic approach remains the same. Schools use data to identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student's responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities. Element 1 provides overview information on RtI.
Guideline: District and school staff members should be familiar with the legal and equity issues associated with Response to Intervention (RtI). Reviewing the provided resources may provide such an understanding.
This link is to questions and answers (Q & A) released by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services as follow up to the October 2006 final regulations for the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This Q & A addresses RtI and early intervening services.
This link to the IDEA 2004 website provides the federal regulations related to Assistance To States For The Education Of Children With Disabilities under IDEA.
Authored by the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems, this document offers "guidance for practitioners on the federal laws guaranteeing a free and appropriate public education and protecting students with disabilities from discrimination."
This link is to the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs memorandum explaining how an RtI process cannot be used to delay or deny an evaluation for eligibility under IDEA.
This link is to a Fall 2005 National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems position statement on cultural challenges associated with RTI.
This link to the Midwest and Plains Equity Assistance Center website provides information regarding race, gender, and national origin equity to educators including podcasts, webinars, and resources that can be downloaded.
This link is to the former website of the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). NCCRESt is now supported by the Equity Alliance at Arizona State University (ASU).
This 2006 National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems practitioner brief discusses the issues associated with culturally and linguistically responsive interventions for culturally and linguistically diverse students.
This link to the Center on Response to Intervention website provides an annotated bibliography of key articles for understanding disproportionate representation. As noted at the website, "the bibliography is categorized into three sections: Practitioner-oriented, Practitioners Who Want to Learn More, and Research-oriented. The Practitioner-oriented category is mainly composed of articles that are simple and practical. The category entitled, Practitioners Who Want to Learn More, is for those who want more detailed information about disproportionality."
This link to an issues paper prepared by the ten Regional Title IV Equity Assistance Centers discusses the equity issues associated with RtI. The paper identifies eleven recommendations to assure successful implementation of RtI.
This 2002 U.S. Department of Education document summarizes the findings of the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education. As noted in the transmittal letter, "the report outlines findings and recommendations for improving the educational performance of children with disabilities."
This 2007 report from the National Education Association and the National Association of School Psychologists provides information on disproportionality in special education. As noted in the report's introduction, it addresses "what it is, issues that contribute to it, implications for students, schools, and communities, and practices that can create positive change, including response to intervention models, early intervening services and positive behavior supports."
Purpose: Identifying students at risk for poor learning outcomes is an essential component of response to intervention (RtI). Universal screening is a brief assessment given to all students focusing on specific skills. Possessing a basic understanding of the role universal screening plays in RtI is essential in understanding the RtI concept. Element 2 provides information on universal screening.
Purpose: The National Center on Student Progress Monitoring defined progress monitoring as "a scientifically based practice that is used to assess students' academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class." As an essential component of response to intervention (RtI), teachers need to understand its principles and application in practice. This task provides resources explaining progress monitoring.
Purpose: Data analysis and decision making occurs at all response to intervention (RtI) implementation and instruction phases. Data teams use screening and progress monitoring data to make decisions about instruction and movement of students within the model. This element provides resources to inform teachers about using data to make applicable decisions within the RtI model.
Purpose: As defined by the National Center on Response to Intervention, "tiered instruction describes levels of instructional intensity within a multi-tiered prevention system." The primary prevention/intervention level comprises the core instruction. The secondary prevention/intervention level consists of supplemental instruction, while the tertiary prevention/intervention level provides intensive interventions to those students showing minimal response to the secondary interventions. This element provides resources on the tiered instruction concept.
Purpose: Planning for professional growth is part of a career-long learning process. Adjusting teaching practice to incorporate response to intervention (RtI) strategies is part of that process. This Element provides information on developing a professional learning plan and resources for professional growth.
Purpose: Fidelity refers to adhering to or exacting following the premises and/or principles associated with a program or initiative. With Response to Intervention (RtI) fidelity represents adherence to the principles outline in its essential components. Element 7 provides resources to help educators adhere to the RtI model principles.
Purpose: In addition to the essential components of response to intervention (RtI), additional factors supporting its implementation include leadership, collaborative culture, acknowledging changing staff member roles, stakeholder involvement, and parent and family partnerships. Being aware of the role these factors play with supporting RtI may enhance its successful implementation. Element 8 provides resources about these factors.
Purpose: Response to intervention (RtI) is an instructional framework frequently used at the elementary school level, but the implementation of tiered interventions in middle and high schools is becoming increasingly popular. Though there is very little research on such frameworks at the middle school level and no research yet supporting the use of tiered interventions in high schools, "professional wisdom" is emerging to guide practitioners wishing to move forward with such implementation at the secondary level. Element 9 provides resources to assist educators in becoming familiar with the emerging research in this area, deepening their knowledge of how the essential components of RtI may translate to the middle and high school levels, and providing tools and resources that will guide the use of assessment and effective instruction within a tiered system of delivery.
Purpose: The response to intervention (RtI) model is intended to support all learners regardless of learning challenges. For example, some students facing learning challenges due to language and cultural differences and/or who show traits of giftedness may require interventions. This element provides educators information on applying the RtI model to English language and gifted learners.