Element 1: Determine the Goals of the Formative AssessmentPurpose:
Developing effective formative assessments begins with an understanding of the fundamentals. These include being knowledgeable about the basic concepts, being able to define "formative," and establishing goals and objectives for formative assessments. Element 1 outlines these tasks and offers resources for the classroom teacher to gain such understanding.
Activity 1: Understand the Basic Concepts of Formative Assessment
Activity 2: Define Formative Assessment
Activity 3: Determine the Objectives for the Assessment
Element 2: Design or Select the Assessment
Purpose: Assessments used in the classroom can be designed locally by teachers or selected from any number of commercial or other professional sources. Regardless of an assessment's origin, teachers must first plan what they intend to accomplish with the assessment. Upon doing so, they can determine whether a pre-existing or new assessment will best meet their needs.
Activity 1: Plan the Assessment
Activity 2: Evaluate Pre-existing Assessments
Activity 3: Develop Own Assessment
Element 3: Administer the Assessment
Purpose: Administering assessments includes conducting and scoring. Conducting the assessment addresses the when, where, and how of doing so. Scoring the assessment focuses on the scoring rubric, determining individual scores, and analyzing the results. Both are essential parts of administering the assessment.
Activity 1: Conduct the Assessment
Activity 2: Score the Assessment
Task 3: Assure Assessment Quality
Guideline: Classroom assessments should meet the following quality criteria. They should
- reflect state and local curriculum standards,
- provide students an opportunity to learn,
- be free of bias and insensitive situations,
- be prepared for the appropriate level,
- be reliably scored, and
- establish appropriate mastery levels.
Assessment Quality Rubrics
This Assessment Training Institute resource suggests factors to consider when assessing the quality of scoring rubrics.
Characteristics of a Sound Classroom Assessment
This is a presentation from the Council of Chief State School Officers reviewing the characteristics of a sound classroom assessment. It reviews seven elements of a high quality classroom assessment.
Element 4: Understand and Interpret the Assessment Results
Purpose: When used properly, assessment results enhance instruction. It is incumbent upon teachers to understand, know how to interpret, and explain the results effectively to their students, parents, and other district and school staff members.
Activity 1: Produce and Review Assessment Results
Activity 2: Inform and Collect Feedback from Constituencies
Element 5: Make Adjustments in Instruction and Assessment
Purpose: Good assessments provide the basis for making adjustments in instruction as well as future assessments. Assessment results show teachers where changes need to be made in instructional approaches for groups of students or individual students. The assessment outcomes also show students what they need to do to improve their learning. Changes to instruction based on assessment results complete the learning cycle.
Activity 1: Make Adjustments to Instruction
Activity 2: Make Adjustments to the Assessment