Purpose: Assessments used in the classroom can be designed locally by teachers or selected from any number of commercial or other professional sources. Regardless of an assessment's origin, teachers must first plan what they intend to accomplish with the assessment. Upon doing so, they can determine whether a pre-existing or new assessment will best meet their needs.
Guideline: The critical factors for developing an assessment should be identified prior to creating the assessment. These factors should include how the assessment will achieve its purpose and goal as well as meet any special needs that might be present.
This resource summarizes Chapter 3: Assessment for Learning from Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind. Developed by Dr. Lorna Earl and Dr. Steven Katz in collaboration with the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education, it is "intended to support teachers in assessing their students effectively, efficiently, and fairly, and to serve as a basis for professional learning." Chapter 3 provides a series of questions for teachers to consider when developing classroom assessments.
This paper by Dr. James Popham proposes a definition for formative assessment and discusses issues impacting its effectiveness. It was prepared for presentation at the October 10-13, 2006, meeting of the Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers subgroup of the Council of Chief State School Officers' (CCSSO's) State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards held in Austin, Texas.
Developed by Education Northwest, formerly the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Toolkit98 is designed to assist classroom teachers to become better assessors of student learning. Chapter 3 addresses Designing High Quality Assessments. This chapter reviews design options and quality considerations.
Purpose: Administering assessments includes conducting and scoring. Conducting the assessment addresses the when, where, and how of doing so. Scoring the assessment focuses on the scoring rubric, determining individual scores, and analyzing the results. Both are essential parts of administering the assessment.
Purpose: When used properly, assessment results enhance instruction. It is incumbent upon teachers to understand, know how to interpret, and explain the results effectively to their students, parents, and other district and school staff members.
Purpose: Good assessments provide the basis for making adjustments in instruction as well as future assessments. Assessment results show teachers where changes need to be made in instructional approaches for groups of students or individual students. The assessment outcomes also show students what they need to do to improve their learning. Changes to instruction based on assessment results complete the learning cycle.