Guideline: Formative assessments should be based on what students must know so they understand what is expected of them and how they can help to close gaps in their learning. Subject matter expectations should be enumerated in measurable objectives related to the assessment.
This resource offers a categorized "shopping list" of useful verbs to assist in making objectives more precise.
This document provides links to websites offering resources on Bloom's Taxonomy.
This document summarizes the key elements of well-written goals, objectives, and activities. The document includes a link to the Performance Objectives Worksheet, which is a guide on writing objectives.
This Penn State University resource offers a model for writing objectives addressing audience, behavior, condition, and degree of mastery. Though intended for higher education, the model is adaptable for use by K-12 teachers. The resource also provides examples of well-written objectives and identifies problems encountered when writing objectives.
Purpose: Assessments used in the classroom can be designed locally by teachers or selected from any number of commercial or other professional sources. Regardless of an assessment's origin, teachers must first plan what they intend to accomplish with the assessment. Upon doing so, they can determine whether a pre-existing or new assessment will best meet their needs.
Purpose: Administering assessments includes conducting and scoring. Conducting the assessment addresses the when, where, and how of doing so. Scoring the assessment focuses on the scoring rubric, determining individual scores, and analyzing the results. Both are essential parts of administering the assessment.
Purpose: When used properly, assessment results enhance instruction. It is incumbent upon teachers to understand, know how to interpret, and explain the results effectively to their students, parents, and other district and school staff members.
Purpose: Good assessments provide the basis for making adjustments in instruction as well as future assessments. Assessment results show teachers where changes need to be made in instructional approaches for groups of students or individual students. The assessment outcomes also show students what they need to do to improve their learning. Changes to instruction based on assessment results complete the learning cycle.